Bangladesh is a maritime nation whose trade with the outside world is heavily dependent on seaborne transportation. Being situated in one of the most geo-strategically significant regions of the world, Bangladesh sits at the crossroads of emerging geopolitical competition. To sustain its steady economic growth, Bangladesh must maintain a delicate balance to maintain its peaceful approach. Hence, Bangladesh needs to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach to shape its maritime policies based on informed decisions, strategic thinking, creative brainstorming, and innovative research.

BIMRAD was established as an independent think tank to study, research and recommend the policy issues pertaining to maritime interests and support the government foreseeing the sustainable development of the country's Blue Economic initiatives. BIMRAD journal is an illustration of that endeavour's aim to contribute to the national policy-making process leading to national economic emancipation. This second issue of the journal bears a significant epoch of time and events. It is being published as we celebrate the birth centenary of the Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and the Golden Jubilee of Independence. However, it also appears at a grim period when the whole world is reeling from the economic fallout of COVID-19. The global maritime sector is also severely affected and is estimated to be plunged by 4.1% due to the unprecedented disruption caused by the pandemic. These pandemic-ridden years have compelled us to rethink our strategies and approaches in almost every sector, which is also prevalent throughout the maritime community.

The journal contains five full-fledged research papers addressing five different aspects of national and international maritime spheres. Written by prominent scholars and practitioners, eminent researchers, and academics, these papers comprehensively explore the economic and strategic issues of the country's maritime domain and regional maritime security-related issues. Besides providing critical insights and original research outputs, these papers also offer some essential policy suggestions to deal with Bangladesh's existing maritime challenges.

We would like to express our gratitude to the contributors who have done a commendable job presenting us with very perceptive and astute research works. We are hopeful that these papers would contribute significantly to the global and national maritime research and policy-making community and add new knowledge to the existing body of maritime literature.

We also take the opportunity of expressing our heartfelt gratitude to our Chief Patron, Acting Chairman, and Advisory Board. They have inspired us consistently and have shown keen interest in lending unstinted support to make the second issue of the BIMRAD journal a reality.

Finally, we would like to thank all the BIMRAD officials for their dedication and hard work, without whom, it would not have been possible to publish the journal.