Prof. Shahab Enam Khan
Once again, the Cold War syndrome is back in the international strategic environment. The complex strategic relations between the US and China have emerged as a critical factor constantly reshaping geopolitical and geostrategic stability in the Indo-Pacific region. The Bay of Bengal, being a part of the Indo-Pacific region, is now witnessing an unprecedented interest from the global power to project their military and diplomatic strengths. Given the militarization of the Indo-Pacific waters and the geostrategic rivalries unfolding in the Bay of Bengal – a vital sovereign jurisdiction of Bangladesh, the necessity for strengthening Bangladesh’s naval power has never been as critically important as of now. Like the Balkans a century ago, riven by overlapping alliances, competitions, and rivalries, the strategic environment in the Indo-Pacific and the Bay of Bengal regions will only become complex and hostile in the future. To secure Bangladesh’s strategic autonomy and to reduce the impacts of global power rivalries over the Bay of Bengal, it is high time for Bangladesh to develop its naval doctrine. The critical powers, i.e., the US, China, Russia, Japan, and Australia, are now rethinking their naval doctrines.
1. Robert D Atkinson, "Biden’s Indo-Pacific Economic Framework Is a Paradigm Shift", Foreign Policy, 01 July 2022.
2. Dennis Hardy, "Repositioning the Bay of Bengal: Implications of Regional Change", Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, 2019, p. 1-16.
3. Derek Grossman, "After Pelosi’s Visit, Most of the Indo-Pacific Sides With Beijing", Foreign Policy, 22 August 2022.
4. Willian Choong and Sharon Seah, "Why AUKUS Alarms ASEAN", Foreign Policy, 19 October 2022.
5. Iain D Henry, "What Allies Want: Reconsidering Loyalty, Reliability, and Alliance Interdependence", International Security, vol 44, no. 4, 2020, p. 45-83.
6. Alfred Thayer Mahan, “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783”, First. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1890.
7. H Kaminer Manship, "Mahan's Concepts of Sea Power: A lecture delivered at the Naval War College on 23 September 1963", Naval War College Review, vol 16, no. 5, 1964, p. 15-30.
8. Kevin Rudd, "A Maritime Balkans of the 21st Century? East Asia is a tinderbox on water", Foreign Policy, 30 January 2013.
9. KPMG International, “The geopolitical impact of the conflict in Ukraine”, Washington DC: KPMG International, 2022.
10. James Kraska and Brian Wilson, "China wages maritime “lawfare”", Foreign Policy, 12 March 2009.
11. Cynthia Miller-Idriss, "How Extremism Went Mainstream Washington Needs a New Approach to Preventing Far-Right Violence", Foreign Affairs, 2022.
12. UNHCR, “Rohingya Refugee Crisis Explained”, New York: UNHCR, 2022.
13. Shahab Enam Khan, "The New Geopolitical Reality in the Bay of Bengal: Implications of Competition and Cooperation on Bangladesh-Sri Lanka Bilateral Relations", Defence Review (Institute of National Security Studies), 2020, p. 46-59.
14. Shahab Enam Khan, "The Emerging Regional Power Dilemma in the Indo-Pacific Region: Bangladesh and Sri Lankan Perspectives", Journal of Defence and Policy Analysis, vol 1, no. 1, p. 16-28.
15. Lyle Goldstein and William Murray, "Undersea Dragons: China’s Maturing Submarine Force",International Security, vol 28 no. 4, 2004, p. 161-196.
16. Scott Moore and Dale Squires, “Deep Trouble: Emerging Resource Competition in the Deep Sea”, Washington: Wilson Center, 2016.
17. Scott Moore and Dale Squires, "Governing the Depths: Conceptualizing the Politics of Deep SeaResources", Glonal Environmental Politics, vol 16, no. 2, 2016, p. 101-109.
18. A. Calrke-Sather, B. Crow-Miller, JM Banister, K Anh Thomas, ES Norman and SR Stephenson,"The Shifting Geopolitics of Water in the Anthropocene", Geopolitics, vol 22, no. 2, 2017, p. 232-359.
19. John Childs, "Extraction in Four Dimensions: Time, Space and the Emerging Geo(-)politics of Deep-Sea Mining", Geopolitics Open Access (Online), 2018, p. 1-25.
20. M G Hussain, P Failler, M Khurshed Alam and A Al Karim, "Major opportunities of blue economy development in Bangladesh", Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, vol 14, no. 1, 2018, p. 88–99.
21. Dmitry Gorenburg, "Russia's New and Unrealistic Naval Doctrine".
22. Michael Brown, "Preface", In Offense, Defense, and War, edited by Michael E. Brown, Jr. OwenR. Cote, Sean M. Lynn-Jones and Steven E. Miller, xvii. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004.